## Modern Supersymmetry: Dynamics and Duality

### BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chapter 1 Introduction to supersymmetry

1. M. Drees, "An Introduction to Supersymmetry," hep-ph/9611409.

2.
B. Sakita,
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3.
F. Gursey and L. A. Radicati,
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4.
S. R. Coleman and J. Mandula,
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5.
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see also
D. V. Volkov and V. P. Akulov,
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J. Wess and B. Zumino,
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6.
R. Di Stefano, "Notes on the Conceptual Development of Supersymmetry"
in *The Supersymmetric World: The Beginnings of the Theory* , Ed. Kane, G. and Shifman,
M. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

7.
R. Haag, J. T. Lopuszanski, and M. Sohnius,
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8. J. Lykken, "Introduction to Supersymmetry," hep-th/9612114.

9.
S. P. Martin, "A Supersymmetry Primer,"
in * Perspectives on Supersymmetry* , Ed. Kane, G., pp. 1--98. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998),
hep-ph/9709356.

10.
S. R. Coleman, *Aspects of Symmetry: Selected Erice Lectures* (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985).

11.
E. Likhtman,
"Notes of an Old Graduate Student" and N. Koretz-Golfand, "My Husband, My Love," in *The Many Faces of the Superworld* , Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume, Ed. Shifman, M.
(World Scientific, Singapore, 2000) [reprinted in *The Supersymmetric World: The Beginnings of the Theory* , Ed. Kane, G. and Shifman, M. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000)].

12.
A. Salam and J. A. Strathdee,
"Unitary Representations of Supergauge Symmetries,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* ** 80** (1974) 499.

13.
L. Alvarez-Gaume and S. F. Hassan,
"Introduction to S-Duality in *N*=2 Supersymmetric Gauge Theories: A
Pedagogical Review of the Work of Seiberg and Witten,"
* Fortsch. Phys.* 45 (1997) 159,
hep-th/9701069.

14.
M. F. Sohnius,
"Introducing Supersymmetry,"
* Phys. Rept.* ** 128** (1985) 39, Section 16.5.

15.
N. Polonsky and S. F. Su,
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* Phys. Rev. D* ** 63** (2001) 035007,
hep-ph/0006174.

16.
B. Zumino,
"Normal Forms of Complex Matrices,"
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17.
J. A. de Azcarraga, J. P. Gauntlett, J. M. Izquierdo, and P. K. Townsend,
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* Phys. Rev. Lett.* ** 63** (1989) 2443;
S. Ferrara and M. Porrati,
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* Phys. Lett. B* ** 423** (1998) 255,
hep-th/9711116;
A. Ritz, M. Shifman and A. Vainshtein,
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SQCD,"
* Phys. Rev. D* **70** (2004) 095003,
hep-th/0405175.

Chapter 2 SUSY Lagrangians

1.
S. P. Martin, "A Supersymmetry Primer,"
in * Perspectives on Supersymmetry*, Ed. Kane, G., pp. 1--98. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998),
hep-ph/9709356.

2. M. Drees, "An Introduction to Supersymmetry," hep-ph/9611409.

3.
J. Wess and B. Zumino,
"Supergauge Transformations in Four-Dimensions,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* ** 70** (1974) 39.

4.
A. Zee, *Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell* (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2003).

5.
E. Noether, "Invariante Variationsprobleme," * Nachr. v. d. Ges. d. Wiss. zu Gottingen* (1918) 235; English translation in
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6.
J. Wess and B. Zumino,
"Supergauge Invariant Extension of Quantum Electrodynamics,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* ** 78** (1974) 1.

7.
S. Ferrara and B. Zumino,
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* Nucl. Phys. B* ** 79** (1974) 413.

8.
S. Weinberg, *The Quantum Theory of Fields: Vol. III: Supersymmetry* (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000).

A. Salam and J. Strathdee, "Super-Gauge Transformations,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* ** 76** (1974) 477.

9.
J. Wess and J. Bagger, *Supersymmetry and Supergravity*, 2nd edn (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1992).

10. J. Lykken, "Introduction to Supersymmetry," hep-th/9612114.

11.
F.A. Berezin, *The Method of Second Quantization* (Academic Press, New York, 1966).

12.
S. Ferrara, J. Wess, and B. Zumino,
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13.
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"Correction to the paper: The Self-Energy of the Electron"
* Z. Phys.* ** 90** (1934) 817;
"On the Self-Energy and the Electromagnetic Field of the Electron"
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14.
L. J. Hall and L. Randall,
"Weak Scale Effective Supersymmetry,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* ** 65** (1990) 2939.

15.
L. Girardello and M. T. Grisaru,
"Soft Breaking of Supersymmetry,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* ** 194** (1982) 65.

Chapter 3 SUSY gauge theories

1.
P. Cvitanovic,
"Group Theory for Feynman Diagrams in Non-Abelian Gauge Theories,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 14, (1976) 1536;
see also P. Cvitanovic,
Group Theory.

2.
M. E. Machacek and M. T. Vaughn,
"Two Loop Renormalization Group Equations in a General Quantum Field Theory
(I). Wave Function Renormalization,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 222 (1983) 83.
M. E. Machacek and M. T. Vaughn,
"Two Loop Renormalization Group Equations in a General Quantum Field Theory
(II). Yukawa Couplings,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 236 (1984) 221.
M. E. Machacek and M. T. Vaughn,
"Two Loop Renormalization Group Equations in a General Quantum Field Theory
(III). Scalar Quartic Couplings,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 249 (1985) 70.

3.
K. Intriligator and N. Seiberg,
"Lectures on Supersymmetric Gauge Theories and Electric-Magnetic
Duality,"
* Nucl. Phys. Proc. Suppl.* 45BC (1996) 1,
hep-th/9509066.

4.
P. Fayet,
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the Electron and its Neutrino,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 90 (1975) 104.

5.
H. E. Haber and G. L. Kane,
"The Search for Supersymmetry: Probing Physics Beyond the Standard
Model, Appendix B,"
* Phys. Rept.* 117 (1985) 75.

Chapter 4 The minimal supersymmetric standard model

1.
H. P. Nilles,
"Supersymmetry, Supergravity and Particle Physics,"
* Phys. Rept.* 110 (1984) 1.

2.
H. E. Haber and G. L. Kane,
"The Search for Supersymmetry: Probing Physics Beyond the Standard Model,"
* Phys. Rept.* 117 (1985) 75.

3. H. E. Haber, "Introductory Low-Energy Supersymmetry," hep-ph/9306207.

4. X. Tata, "Supersymmetry: Where it is and How to Find it," hep-ph/9510287.

5. J. A. Bagger, "Weak-Scale Supersymmetry: Theory and Practice," hep-ph/9604232.

6.
C. Csaki,
"The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM),"
* Mod. Phys. Lett. A* 11 (1996) 599,
hep-ph/9606414.

7. M. Drees, "An Introduction to Supersymmetry," hep-ph/9611409.

8. M. Dine, "Supersymmetry Phenomenology (with a Broad Brush)," hep-ph/9612389.

9.
S. P. Martin, "A Supersymmetry Primer,"
in * Perspectives on Supersymmetry*, Ed. Kane, G., pp. 1--98. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998),
hep-ph/9709356.

10. N. Polonsky, "Supersymmetry Structure and Phenomena---Extensions of the Standard Model", (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2001), hep-ph/0108236.

11.
G. Jungman, M. Kamionkowski, and K. Griest,
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* Phys. Rept.* 267 (1996) 195,
hep-ph/9506380.

12.
H. Goldberg,
"Constraint On The Photino Mass From Cosmology,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 50 (1983) 1419.

13.
G. Servant and T. M. P. Tait,
"Elastic Scattering and Direct Detection of Kaluza-Klein Dark Matter,"
* New J. Phys.* 4 (2002) 99,
hep-ph/0209262.

14.
H. Georgi and S. L. Glashow,
"Unity of all Elementary Particle Forces,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 32 (1974) 438.

14.
H. Georgi, H. R. Quinn, and S. Weinberg,
"Hierarchy of Interactions in Unified Gauge Theories,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 33 (1974) 451.

15.
S. Dimopoulos, S. Raby, and F. Wilczek,
"Supersymmetry and the Scale of Unification,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 24 (1981) 1681;
U. Amaldi, W. de Boer, and H. Furstenau,
"Comparison of Grand Unified Theories with Electroweak and Strong Coupling
Constants Measured at LEP,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 260 (1991) 447.

16.
F. Anselmo, L. Cifarelli, A. Peterman, and A. Zichichi,
"The Effective Experimental Constraints on M_SUSY and M_GUT,"
* Nuovo Cim.* 104A (1991) 1817;
"The Evolution of Gaugino Masses and the SUSY Threshold,"
* Nuovo Cim.* 105A (1992) 581.

17.
P. Langacker and N. Polonsky,
"Uncertainties in Coupling Constant Unification,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 47 (1993) 4028,
hep-ph/9210235.

18.
J. E. Kim and H. P. Nilles,
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"Gaugino Condensation and the Cosmological Implications of the Hidden
Sector,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 263 (1991) 79;
E. J. Chun, J. E. Kim, and H. P. Nilles,
"A Natural Solution of the mu Problem with a Composite Axion in the Hidden
Sector,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 370 (1992) 105.

19.
G. F. Giudice and A. Masiero,
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J. A. Casas and C. Munoz,
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20.
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* Nucl. Phys. B* 478 (1996) 31,
hep-ph/9603238.

21.
S. Dimopoulos and H. Georgi,
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* Nucl. Phys. B* 193 (1981) 150.

22.
H. E. Haber and R. Hempfling,
"Can the Mass of the Lightest Higgs Boson of the Minimal Supersymmetric Model
be Larger than M_Z?"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 66 (1991) 1815;
Y. Okada, M. Yamaguchi, and T. Yanagida,
"Upper Bound of the Lightest Higgs Boson Mass in the Minimal Supersymmetric
Standard Model,"
* Prog. Theor. Phys.* 85 (1991) 1;
"Renormalization Group Analysis on the Higgs Mass in the Softly Broken
Supersymmetric Standard Model,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 262 (1991) 54;
J. R. Ellis, G. Ridolfi ,and F. Zwirner,
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* Phys. Lett. B* 257 (1991) 83,
"On Radiative Corrections to Supersymmetric Higgs Boson Masses and their
Implications for LEP Searches,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 262 (1991) 477.

23.
H. P. Nilles, M. Srednicki, and D. Wyler,
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* Phys. Lett. B* 120 (1983) 346;
J. R. Ellis, J. F. Gunion, H. E. Haber, L. Roszkowski, and F. Zwirner,
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* Phys. Rev. D* 39 (1989) 844.

24.
G. L. Kane, C. F. Kolda, and J. D. Wells,
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Perturbatively Valid Supersymmetric Theory,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 70 (1993) 2686,
hep-ph/9210242;
J. R. Espinosa and M. Quiros,
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Standard Models,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 302 (1993) 51,
hep-ph/9212305.

25.
M. A. Luty, J. Terning, and A. K. Grant,
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Scale,"
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hep-ph/0006224.
P. Batra, A. Delgado, D. E. Kaplan and T. M. P. Tait,
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Standard Model,"
* JHEP* 0402 (2004) 043,
hep-ph/0309149;
R. Harnik, G. D. Kribs, D. T. Larson, and H. Murayama,
"The Minimal Supersymmetric Fat Higgs Model,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 70 (2004) 015002,
hep-ph/0311349.

26.
M. Golden and L. Randall,
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* Nucl. Phys. B* 361 (1991) 3;
B. Holdom and J. Terning,
"Large Corrections To Electroweak Parameters in Technicolor
Theories,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 247 (1990) 88;
M. E. Peskin and T. Takeuchi,
"Estimation of Oblique Electroweak Corrections,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 46 (1992) 381.

27.
T. Appelquist and J. Carazzone,
"Infrared Singularities and Massive Fields,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 11 (1975) 2856.

28.
F. Gabbiani, E. Gabrielli, A. Masiero, and L. Silvestrini,
"A Complete Analysis of FCNC and CP Constraints in General SUSY Extensions of
the Standard Model,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 77 (1996) 321,
hep-ph/9604387.

29.
S. L. Glashow, J. Iliopoulos, and L. Maiani,
"Weak Interactions with Lepton--Hadron Symmetry,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 2 (1970) 1285.

30.
N. Cabibbo,
"Unitary Symmetry and Leptonic Decays,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 10 (1963) 531;
M. Kobayashi and T. Maskawa,
"CP Violation in the Renormalizable Theory of Weak Interaction,"
* Prog. Theor. Phys.* 49 (1973) 652.

31.
A. G. Cohen, D. B. Kaplan, and A. E. Nelson,
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* Phys. Lett. B* 388 (1996) 588,
hep-ph/9607394.

32.
L. J. Hall and L. Randall,
"Weak Scale Effective Supersymmetry,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 65 (1990) 2939.

33.
Y. Nir and N. Seiberg,
"Should Squarks be Degenerate?,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 309 (1993) 337,
hep-ph/9304307.

Chapter 5 SUSY breaking and the MSSM

1.
L. O'Raifeartaigh,
"Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking for Chiral Scalar Superfields,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 96 (1975) 331.

2.
S. P. Martin, "A Supersymmetry Primer,"
in * Perspectives on Supersymmetry*, Ed. Kane, G., pp. 1--98. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998),
hep-ph/9709356.

3. H. E. Haber, "Introductory Low-Energy Supersymmetry," hep-ph/9306207.

4. M. A. Luty, "2004 TASI Lectures on Supersymmetry Breaking," hep-th/0509029.

5.
D. V. Volkov and V. P. Akulov,
"Is the Neutrino a Goldstone Particle?,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 46 (1973) 109.

6.
P. Fayet and J. Iliopoulos,
"Spontaneously Broken Supergauge Symmetries and Goldstone Spinors,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 51 (1974) 461; P. Fayet,
"Supergauge Invariant Extension of the Higgs Mechanism and a
Model for the Electron and its Neutrino,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 90 (1975) 104.

7.
G. F. Giudice and A. Masiero,
"A Natural Solution to the mu Problem in Supergravity Theories,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 206 (1988) 480.

8.
P. Fayet,
"Mixing Between Gravitational and Weak Interactions Through the Massive
Gravitino,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 70 (1977) 461;
"Scattering Cross-Sections of the Photino and the Goldstino (Gravitino) on
Matter,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 86 (1979) 272.

9.
S. Ferrara, D. Z. Freedman, and P. van
Nieuwenhuizen,
"Progress Toward a Theory of Supergravity,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 13 (1976) 3214;
S. Deser and B. Zumino,
"Consistent Supergravity,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 62 (1976) 335;
D. Z. Freedman and P. van Nieuwenhuizen,
"Properties of Supergravity Theory,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 14 (1976) 912;
E. Cremmer, B. Julia, J. Scherk, S. Ferrara, L. Girardello, and P. van Nieuwenhuizen,
"Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Higgs Effect in Supergravity Without
Cosmological Constant," * Nucl. Phys. B* 147 (1979) 105;
J. A. Bagger,
"Coupling the Gauge Invariant Supersymmetric Nonlinear Sigma Model to
Supergravity,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 211 (1983) 302.

10.
E. Cremmer, S. Ferrara, L. Girardello, and A. van Proeyen,
"Yang-Mills Theories with Local Supersymmetry: Lagrangian, Transformation Laws
and Superhiggs Effect,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 212 (1983) 413.

11.
M. Dine and W. Fischler,
"A Phenomenological Model of Particle Physics Based on Supersymmetry,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 110 (1982) 227;
C. R. Nappi and B. A. Ovrut,
"Supersymmetric Extension of the SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) Model,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 113 (1982) 175;
L. Alvarez-Gaume, M. Claudson, and M. B. Wise,
"Low-Energy Supersymmetry,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 207 (1982) 96.

12.
M. Dine and A. E. Nelson,
"Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking at Low-Energies,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 48 (1993) 1277,
{hep-ph/9303230;
M. Dine, A. E. Nelson, and Y. Shirman,
"Low-Energy Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking Simplified,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 51 (1995) 1362,
hep-ph/9408384;
M. Dine, A. E. Nelson, Y. Nir, and Y. Shirman,
"New Tools for Low-Energy Dynamical Supersym-metry Breaking,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 53 (1996) 2658,
hep-ph/9507378.

13.
M. A. Luty and R. Sundrum,
"Supersymmetry Breaking and Composite Extra Dimensions,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 65 (2002) 066004,
hep-th/0105137.

14.
L. Randall and R. Sundrum,
"Out of this World Supersymmetry Breaking,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 557 (1999) 79,
hep-th/9810155.
M. A. Luty and R. Sundrum,
"Radius Stabilization and Anomaly-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 62 (2000) 035008,
hep-th/9910202.

15.
A. Salam and J. Strathdee,
"On Goldstone Fermions,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 49 (1974) 465.

16.
E. Witten,
"Dynamical Breaking of Supersymmetry,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 188 (1981) 513.

Chapter 6 Gauge mediation

1.
G. F. Giudice and R. Rattazzi,
"Theories with Gauge-Mediated Supersymmet-ry Breaking,"
* Phys. Rept.* 322 (1999) 419,
hep-ph/9801271.

2.
M. Dine, W. Fischler, and M. Srednicki,
"Supersymmetric Technicolor,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 189 (1981) 575;
S. Dimopoulos and S. Raby,
"Supercolor,"
Nucl. Phys. B ** 192** (1981) 353;
L. Alvarez-Gaume, M. Claudson, and M. B. Wise,
"Low-Energy Supersymmetry,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 207 (1982) 96.

3.
M. Dine and A. E. Nelson,
"Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking at Low-Energies,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 48 (1993) 1277,
hep-ph/9303230;
M. Dine, A. E. Nelson, and Y. Shirman,
"Low-Energy Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking Simplified,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 51 (1995) 1362,
hep-ph/9408384;
M. Dine, A. E. Nelson, Y. Nir, and Y. Shirman,
"New Tools for Low-Energy Dynamical Supersym-metry Breaking,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 53 (1996) 2658,
hep-ph/9507378.

4.
G. F. Giudice and R. Rattazzi,
"Extracting Supersymmetry-Breaking Effects from Wave-Function Renormalization,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 511 (1998) 25,
hep-ph/9706540.

Chapter 7 Nonperturbative results

1.
N. Manton, "Solitons,"
in * Duality and Supersymmetric Theories* Eds. Olive, D. I. and West, P. C. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).

2.
S. R. Coleman, "The Magnetic Monopole 50 Years Later," in
* Gauge theories in high energy physics* Eds.
Gaillard, M. K. and Stora, R. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983).

3.
M. K. Prasad and C. M. Sommerfield,
"An Exact Classical Solution for the 't Hooft Monopole and the Julia-Zee
Dyon,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 35 (1975) 760.

4.S. R. Coleman, "Classical Lumps and their Quantum Descendants", in
* Aspects of Symmetry: Selected Erice Lectures* (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985).

5.
E. B. Bogomolny,
"Stability of Classical Solutions,"
* Sov. J. Nucl. Phys.* 24 (1976) 449
[* Yad. Fiz.* 24 (1976) 861].

6.
B. Julia and A. Zee,
"Poles with both Magnetic and Electric Charges in Non-Abelian Gauge Theory,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 11 (1975) 2227;
E. Tomboulis and G. Woo,
"Soliton Quantization in Gauge Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 107 (1976) 221;
J. L. Gervais, B. Sakita, and S. Wadia,
"The Surface Term in Gauge Theories,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 63 (1976) 55.

7.
E. Witten and D. I. Olive,
"Supersymmetry Algebras that Include Topological Charges,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 78 (1978) 97.

8.
J. Bell and R. Jackiw,
"A PCAC Puzzle: pi^0 to gamma gamma in the Sigma Model,"
* Nuovo Cim. A* 60 (1969) 47;
S. L. Adler,
"Axial Vector Vertex in Spinor Electrodynamics,"
* Phys. Rev.* 177 (1969) 2426.

9.
K. Fujikawa,
"Path Integral Measure for Gauge Invariant Fermion Theories,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 42 (1979) 1195;
"Path Integral for Gauge Theories with Fermions,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 21 (1980) 2848
[Erratum-ibid. * D* 22 (1980) 1499].

10.
S. L. Adler and W. A. Bardeen,
"Absence of Higher Order Corrections in the Anomalous Axial Vector Divergence
Equation,"
* Phys. Rev.* 182 (1969) 1517;
W. A. Bardeen,
"Anomalous Ward Identities in Spinor Field Theories,"
* Phys. Rev.* 184 (1969) 1848.

11.
M. F. Atiyah and I. M. Singer,
"The Index of Elliptic Operators on Compact Manifolds,"
* Bull. Amer. Math. Soc.* 69 (1963) 322;
M. F. Atiyah and I. M. Singer, "The Index of Elliptic Operators I, II, III,"
* Ann. Math.* 87 (1968) 484. See also the Wikipedia article.

12.
J. Preskill,
"Gauge Anomalies in an Effective Field Theory,"
* Ann. Phys.* 210 (1991) 323.

13.
E. Witten,
"An SU(2) Anomaly,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 117 (1982) 324.

14.
G. `t Hooft "Naturalness, Chiral Symmetry, and Spontaneous Chiral Symmetry Breaking," in * Recent Developments in Gauge Theories* Ed. `t Hooft, G. et. al.
(Plenum Press, New York, 1980) p. 135; reprinted in * Unity of Forces in the Universe
Vol. II*, Ed. Zee, A. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982) p. 1004; reprinted in * Dynamical Gauge Symmetry Breaking*, Eds. Farhi, E. and Jackiw, R. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982). p. 345.

15.
J. Wess and B. Zumino,
"Consequences of Anomalous Ward Identities,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 37 (1971) 95.

16.
H. Georgi, *Weak Interactions and Modern Particle Theory*, (Benjamin Cummings, Menlo Park, CA, 1984).

17.
S. R. Coleman and B. Grossman,
" `t Hooft's Consistency Condition as a Consequence of Analyticity and
Unitarity,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 203, 205 (1982).

18.
P. A. M. Dirac,
"Quantised Singularities in the Electromagnetic Field,"
*Proc. R. Soc. A* 133 (1931) 60.

19.
G. 't Hooft,
"Magnetic Monopoles in Unified Gauge Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 79 (1974) 276;
A. M. Polyakov,
"Particle Spectrum in Quantum Field Theory,"
* JETP Lett.* 20 (1974) 194
[* Pisma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.* 20 (1974) 430].

20.
A. A. Belavin, A. M. Polyakov, A. S. Schwartz, and Y. S. Tyupkin,
"Pseudoparticle Solutions of the Yang--Mills Equations,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 59 (1975) 85.

21.
S. R. Coleman, "The Uses of Instantons", in
*Aspects of Symmetry: Selected Erice Lectures* (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985).

22. M. A. Shifman and A. I. Vainshtein, "Instantons Versus Supersymmetry: Fifteen Years Later," hep-th/9902018.

23.
R. J. Crewther, P. Di Vecchia, G. Veneziano, and E. Witten,
"Chiral Estimate of the Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron in Quantum
Chromodynamics,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 88 (1979) 123
[Erratum-ibid. * B* 91 (1980) 487].

24.
G. 't Hooft,
"Symmetry Breaking Through Bell--Jackiw Anomalies,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 37 (1976) 8;
"Computation of the Quantum Effects due to a Four-Dimensional
Pseudoparticle,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 14 (1976) 3432
[Erratum-ibid. * D* 18 (1978) 2199];
reprinted in * Instantons in Gauge Theories*, Ed. Shifman, M. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1994).

25.
C. Csaki and H. Murayama,
"Instantons in Partially Broken Gauge Groups,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 532 (1998) 498,
hep-th/9804061.

26.
V. A. Novikov, M. A. Shifman, A. I. Vainshtein, and V. I. Zakharov,
"Exact Gell--Mann-Low Function of Supersymmetric Yang--Mills Theories from
Instanton Calculus,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 229 (1983) 381;
"Supersymmetric Instanton Calculus: Gauge Theories with Matter,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 260 (1985) 157;
"beta Function in Supersymmetric Gauge Theories: Instantons Versus Traditional
Approach,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 166 (1986) 329.

27. A. I. Vainshtein, private communication.

28.
G. Mack,
"All Unitary Ray Representations of the Conformal Group SU(2, 2) with Positive Energy,"
* Comm. Math. Phys.* 55 (1977) 1.

29.
M. Flato and C. Fronsdal,
"Representations of Conformal Supersymmetry,"
* Lett. Math. Phys.* 8 (1984) 159.

30.
V. K. Dobrev and V. B. Petkova,
"All Positive Energy Unitary Irreducible Representations of Extended Conformal Supersymmetry,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 162 (1985) 127;
V. K. Dobrev and V. B. Petkova, "All Positive Energy Unitary Irreducible
Representations of the Extended Conformal Superalgebra", in * Symposium on
Conformal Groups and Structures, Clausthal 1985: Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol.
261,*
Eds. Barut, A. O. and Doebner, H. D. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986) p. 300;
V. K. Dobrev and V. B. Petkova,
"Group Theoretical Approach to Extended Conformal Supersymmetry: Function Space Realizations and Invariant Differential Operators,"
* Fortsch. Phys.* 35 (1987) 537.

31.
S. Minwalla,
"Restrictions Imposed by Superconformal Invariance on Quantum Field Theories,"
* Adv. Theor. Math. Phys.* 2 (1998) 781,
hep-th/9712074.

32.
S. Raby, S. Dimopoulos, and L. Susskind,
"Tumbling Gauge Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 169 (1980) 373;
J. M. Cornwall,
"Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking without Scalar Mesons. 2,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 10 (1974) 500.

33.
D. Z. Freedman and H. Nicolai,
"Multiplet Shortening in Osp(N,4),"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 237 (1984) 342.

34.
M. F. Sohnius,
"Introducing Supersymmetry,"
* Phys. Rept.* 128 (1985) 39, Section 16.5.

Chapter 8 Holomorphy

1.
D. Amati, K. Konishi, Y. Meurice, G. C. Rossi, and G. Veneziano,
"Nonperturbative Aspects in Supersymmetric Gauge Theories,"
* Phys. Rept.* 162 (1988) 169.

2.
M. A. Shifman and A. I. Vainshtein,
"Solution of the Anomaly Puzzle in SUSY Gauge Theories and the Wilson Operator
Expansion,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 277 (1986) 456
[* Sov. Phys. JETP* 64 (1986) 428, * ZETFA* 91 (1986) 723];
M. A. Shifman and A. I. Vainshtein,
"On Holomorphic Dependence and Infrared Effects in Supersymmetric Gauge
Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 359 (1991) 571.

3.
M. T. Grisaru, W. Siegel, and M. Rocek,
"Improved Methods for Supergraphs,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 159 (1979) 429.

4.
N. Seiberg,
"Naturalness Versus Supersymmetric Non-Renormalization Theorems,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 318 (1993) 469,
hep-ph/9309335.

5. N. Seiberg, "The Power of Holomorphy: Exact Results in 4-D SUSY Field Theories," hep-th/9408013.

6.
N. Seiberg,
"The Power of Duality: Exact Results in 4D SUSY Field Theory,"
* Int. J. Mod. Phys. A* 16 (2001) 4365,
hep-th/9506077.

7.
K. Intriligator and N. Seiberg,
"Lectures on Supersymmetric Gauge Theories and Electric-Magnetic
Duality,"
* Nucl. Phys. Proc. Suppl.* 45BC (1996) 1,
hep-th/9509066.

8.
N. M. Davies, T. J. Hollowood, V. V. Khoze, and M. P. Mattis,
"Gluino Condensate and Magnetic Monopoles in Supersymmetric Gluodynamics,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 559 (1999) 123,
hep-th/9905015.

9.
V. A. Novikov, M. A. Shifman, A. I. Vainshtein, and V. I. Zakharov,
"Supersymmetric Instanton Calculus: Gauge Theories with Matter,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 260 (1985) 157
[* Yad. Fiz.* 42 (1985) 1499].

10.
M. A. Shifman, A. I. Vainshtein, and V. I. Zakharov,
"Instantons Versus SUSY,"
* Sov. Phys. Usp.* 28 (1985) 709
[* Usp. Fiz. Nauk.* 146 (1985) 683].

11.
G. R. Dvali and M. A. Shifman,
"Domain Walls in Strongly Coupled Theories,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 396 (1997) 64
[Erratum * Phys. Lett. B* 407 (1997) 452]
hep-th/9612128;
A. Ritz, M. Shifman, and A. Vainshtein,
"Enhanced Worldvolume Supersym-metry and Intersecting Domain Walls in *N*=1
SQCD,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 70 (2004) 095003,
hep-th/0405175.

12.
N. Arkani-Hamed and H. Murayama,
"Holomorphy, Rescaling Anomalies, and Exact
beta Functions in Supersymmetric Gauge Theories,"
* JHEP* 0006 (2000) 030,
hep-th/9707133.

13.
M. Dine and Y. Shirman,
"Some Explorations in Holomorphy,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 50 (1994) 5389,
hep-th/9405155.

Chapter 9 The Affleck-Dine-Seiberg superpotential

1.
A. C. Davis, M. Dine, and N. Seiberg,
"The Massless Limit of Supersymmetric QCD,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 125 (1983) 487.

2.
I. Affleck, M. Dine, and N. Seiberg,
"Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking in Supersymmetric QCD,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 241 (1984) 493.

3.
M. A. Shifman and A. I. Vainshtein,
"Solution of the Anomaly Puzzle in SUSY Gauge Theories and the Wilson Operator
Expansion,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 277 (1986) 456
[* Sov. Phys. JETP* 64 (1986) 428, * ZETFA* 91 (1986) 723];
M. A. Shifman and A. I. Vainshtein,
"On Holomorphic Dependence and Infrared Effects in Supersymmetric Gauge
Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 359 (1991) 571;
M. Dine and Y. Shirman,
"Some Explorations in Holomorphy,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 50 (1994) 5389,
hep-th/9405155.

4.
W. Siegel,
"Supersymmetric Dimensional Regularization Via Dimensional Reduction,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 84 (1979) 193.

5.
D. Finnell and P. Pouliot,
"Instanton Calculations Versus Exact Results in Four-Dimensional SUSY Gauge Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 453 (1995) 225,
hep-th/9503115.

6.
V. A. Novikov, M. A. Shifman, A. I. Vainshtein, and V. I. Zakharov,
"Supersymmetric Instanton Calculus: Gauge Theories with Matter,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 260 (1985) 157
[* Yad. Fiz.* 42 (1985) 1499].

7.
E. Witten,
"Constraints on Supersymmetry Breaking,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 202 (1982) 253.

8.
J. Wess and B. Zumino,
"Consequences of Anomalous Ward Identities,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 37 (1971) 95.
For a review see
H. Georgi, *Weak Interactions and Modern Particle Theory*, (Benjamin Cummings, Menlo Park, CA, 1984).

Chapter 10 Seiberg duality for SUSY QCD

1.
N. Seiberg,
"Electric--Magnetic Duality in Supersymmetric Non-Abelian Gauge Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 435 (1995) 129,
hep-th/9411149.

2.
N. Seiberg,
"The Power of Duality: Exact Results in 4D SUSY Field Theory,"
* Int. J. Mod. Phys. A* 16 (2001) 4365,
hep-th/9506077.

3.
K. Intriligator and N. Seiberg,
"Lectures on Supersymmetric Gauge Theories and Electric-Magnetic
Duality,"
* Nucl. Phys. Proc. Suppl.* 45BC (1996) 1,
hep-th/9509066.

4. M. E. Peskin, "Duality in Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory," hep-th/9702094.

5.
M. A. Shifman,
"Nonperturbative Dynamics in Supersymmetric Gauge Theories,"
* Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys.* 39 (1997) 1,
hep-th/9704114.

6.
G. 't Hooft,
"Gauge Fields with Unified Weak, Electromagnetic, and Strong Interactions,"
* Talk given at EPS International Conference on High Energy Physics, Palermo, Italy, June 23-28, 1975*, published in
* High Energy Physics* Ed. Zichichi,A. (Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 1976) p. 1225;
S. Mandelstam,
"Vortices and Quark Confinement in Non-Abelian Gauge Theories,"
* Phys. Rept.* 23 (1976) 245;
S. Mandelstam,
"Charge--Monopole Duality and the Phases of Non-Abelian Gauge Theories,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 19 (1979) 2391.

7.
N. Seiberg and E. Witten,
"Electric--Magnetic Duality, Monopole Condensation, and Confinement in *N*=2 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 426 (1994) 19,
[Erratum-ibid. * B* 430 (1994) 485],
hep-th/9407087.

8.
N. Seiberg,
"Exact Results on the Space of Vacua of Four-Dimensional SUSY Gauge
Theories,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 49 (1994) 6857,
hep-th/9402044.

9.
M. A. Luty and W. I. Taylor,
"Varieties of Vacua in Classical Supersymmetric Gauge Theories,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 53 (1996) 3399,
hep-th/9506098.

10.
T. Banks and A. Zaks,
"On the Phase Structure of Vector-Like Gauge Theories with Massless Fermions,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 196 (1982) 189.

11.
C. G. Callan, S. R. Coleman, and R. Jackiw,
"A New Improved Energy--Momentum Tensor,"
* Ann. Phys.* 59 (1970) 42.

12.
K. Intriligator and B. Wecht,
"The Exact Superconformal R-Symmetry Maximizes a,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 667 (2003) 183,
hep-th/0304128.

13.
R. Delbourgo and A. Salam,
"The Gravitational Correction to PCAC,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 40, 381 (1972);
T. Eguchi and P. G. O. Freund,
"Quantum Gravity and World Topology,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 37 (1976) 1251;
L. Alvarez-Gaume and E. Witten,
"Gravitational Anomalies,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 234, 269 (1984).

14.
A. de Gouvea, A. Friedland, and H. Murayama,
"Seiberg Duality and e^+ e^- Experiments,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 59 (1999) 105008,
hep-th/9810020.

15.
C. Montonen and D. I. Olive,
"Magnetic Monopoles as Gauge Particles?,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 72 (1977) 117.

16.
O. Aharony,
"Remarks on Non-Abelian Duality in *N*=1 Supersymmetric Gauge Theories,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 351 (1995) 220,
hep-th/9502013.

17.
B. Grinstein and D. R. Nolte,
"Systematic Study of Theories with Quantum Modified Moduli,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 57 (1998) 6471,
hep-th/9710001;
"Systematic Study of Theories with Quantum Modified Moduli. II,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 58 (1998) 045012,
hep-th/9803139.

18.
T. Banks and E. Rabinovici,
"Finite Temperature Behavior of the Lattice Abelian Higgs Model,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 160 (1979) 349;
E. H. Fradkin and S. H. Shenker,
"Phase Diagrams of Lattice Gauge Theories with Higgs Fields,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 19 (1979) 3682.

19.
C. Csaki, M. Schmaltz, and W. Skiba,
"Systematic Approach to Confinement in *N*=1 Supersymmetric Gauge Theories,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 78 (1997) 799,
hep-th/9610139;
C. Csaki, M. Schmaltz, and W. Skiba,
"Confinement in *N*=1 SUSY Gauge Theories and Model Building Tools,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 55 (1997) 7840,
hep-th/9612207.

20.
G. `t Hooft "Naturalness, Chiral Symmetry, and Spontaneous Chiral Symmetry Breaking," in * Recent Developments in Gauge Theories* Ed. `t Hooft, G. et. al.
(Plenum Press, New York, 1980) p. 135; reprinted in * Unity of Forces in the Universe
Vol. II*, Ed. Zee, A. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982) p. 1004; reprinted in * Dynamical Gauge Symmetry Breaking*, Eds. Farhi, E. and Jackiw, R. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982). p. 345.

Chapter 11 More Seiberg duality

1.
K. Intriligator and N. Seiberg,
"Duality, Monopoles, Dyons, Confinement and Oblique Confinement in
Supersymmetric SO(N_c) Gauge Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 444 (1995) 125,
hep-th/9503179.

2.
K. Intriligator and P. Pouliot,
"Exact Superpotentials, Quantum Vacua and Duality in Supersymmetric Sp(N_c) Gauge Theories,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 353 (1995) 471,
hep-th/9505006.

3.
G. Dotti, A. V. Manohar, and W. Skiba,
"Supersymmetric Gauge Theories with a Free Algebra of Invariants,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 531 (1998) 507,
hep-th/9803087.

4.
E. Witten,
"Constraints on Supersymmetry Breaking,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 202 (1982) 253.

5.
P. Pouliot and M. J. Strassler,
"A Chiral SU(N) Gauge Theory and its Non-Chiral Spin(8) Dual,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 370 (1996) 76,
hep-th/9510228.

6.
C. Csaki, M. Schmaltz, and W. Skiba,
"Systematic Approach to Confinement in *N*=1 Supersymmetric Gauge Theories,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 78 (1997) 799,
hep-th/9610139;
C. Csaki, M. Schmaltz, and W. Skiba,
"Confinement in *N*=1 SUSY Gauge Theories and Model Building Tools,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 55 (1997) 7840,
hep-th/9612207.

7.
M. Berkooz,
"The Dual of Supersymmetric SU(2k) with an Antisymmetric Tensor and Composite Dualities,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 452 (1995) 513,
hep-th/9505067.

8.
P. Pouliot,
"Duality in SUSY SU(N) with an Antisymmetric Tensor,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 367 (1996) 151,
hep-th/9510148.

9.
J. Terning,
"Duals for SU(N) SUSY Gauge Theories with an Antisymmetric Tensor: Five Easy Flavors,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 422 (1998) 149,
hep-th/9712167;
C. Csaki, P. Meade, and J. Terning,
"A Mixed Phase of SUSY Gauge Theories from A-Maximization,"
* JHEP* 0404 (2004) 040,
hep-th/0403062.

Chapter 12 Dynamical SUSY breaking

1.
Y. Shadmi and Y. Shirman,
"Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking,"
* Rev. Mod. Phys.* 72 (2000) 25,
hep-th/9907225.

2.
I. Affleck, M. Dine, and N. Seiberg,
"Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking in Chiral Theories,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 137 (1984) 187.

3.
I. Affleck, M. Dine, and N. Seiberg,
"Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking in Four-Dimensions and its Phenomenological Implications,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 256 (1985) 557.

4.
Y. Meurice and G. Veneziano,
"SUSY Vacua Versus Chiral Fermions,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 141 (1984) 69.

5. K. Intriligator and S. Thomas, "Dual Descriptions of Supersymmetry Breaking," hep-th/9608046.

6.
H. Murayama,
"Studying Noncalculable Models of Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 355 (1995) 187,
hep-th/9505082.

7.
P. Pouliot,
"Duality in SUSY SU(N) with an Antisymmetric Tensor,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 367 (1996) 151,
hep-th/9510148.

8.
K. Intriligator and S. Thomas,
"Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking on Quantum Moduli Spaces,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 473 (1996) 121,
hep-th/9603158;
K. Izawa and T. Yanagida,
"Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking in Vector-Like Gauge Theories,"
* Prog. Theor. Phys.* 95 (1996) 829,
hep-th/9602180.

9.
N. Arkani-Hamed and H. Murayama,
"Renormalization Group Invariance of Exact Results in Supersymmetric Gauge Theories,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 57 (1998) 6638,
hep-th/9705189.

10.
S. Dimopoulos, G. R. Dvali, and R. Rattazzi,
"Dynamical Inflation and Unification Scale on Quantum Moduli Spaces,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 410 (1997) 119,
hep-ph/9705348.

11.
Z. Chacko, M .A. Luty, and E. Ponton,
"Calculable Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking on Deformed Moduli Spaces,"
* JHEP* 12 (1998) 016,
hep-th/9810253.

12.
L. O'Raifeartaigh,
"Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking for Chiral Scalar Superfields,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 96 (1975) 331.

13.
M .A. Luty and J. Terning,
"New Mechanisms of Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking and Direct Gauge
Mediation,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 57 (1998) 6799,
hep-ph/9709306.

14.
I. Affleck, M. Dine, and N. Seiberg,
"Calculable Nonperturbative Supersym-metry Breaking,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 52 (1984) 1677.

15.
C. Csaki, L. Randall, W. Skiba, and R. G. Leigh,
"Supersymmetry Breaking Through Confining and Dual Theory Gauge Dynamics,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 387 (1996) 791,
hep-th/9607021.

16.
E. Poppitz, Y. Shadmi, and S. P. Trivedi,
"Supersymmetry Breaking and Duality in SU(N) x SU(N-M) Theories,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 388 (1996) 561,
hep-th/9606184.

17.
S. Dimopoulos, G. R. Dvali, R. Rattazzi, and G. F. Giudice,
"Dynamical Soft Terms with Unbroken Supersymmetry,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 510 (1998) 12,
hep-ph/9705307.

18. Y. Shirman, private communication.

19.
N. Arkani-Hamed and H. Murayama,
"Can the Supersymmetric Flavor Problem Decouple?,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 56 (1997) 6733,
hep-ph/9703259.

20.
M. A. Luty and J. Terning,
"Improved Single Sector Supersymmetry Breaking,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 62 (2000) 075006,
hep-ph/9812290.

21.
M. Berkooz, P. L. Cho, P. Kraus, and M. J. Strassler,
"Dual Descriptions of SO(10) SUSY Gauge Theories with Arbitrary Numbers of Spinors and Vectors,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 56 (1997) 7166,
hep-th/9705003.

22.
A. G. Cohen, D. B. Kaplan, and A. E. Nelson,
"The More Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 388 (1996) 588,
hep-ph/9607394.

Chapter 13 The Seiberg-Witten theory

1.
N. Seiberg and E. Witten,
"Electric--Magnetic Duality, Monopole Condensation, and Confinement
in *N*=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 426 (1994) 19,
hep-th/9407087.

2.
N. Seiberg and E. Witten,
"Monopoles, Duality and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in *N*=2 Supersymmetric QCD,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 431 (1994) 484,
hep-th/9408099.

3.
K. Intriligator and N. Seiberg,
"Duality, Monopoles, Dyons, Confinement and Oblique Confinement in
Supersymmetric SO(N_c) Gauge Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 444 (1995) 125,
hep-th/9503179.

4.
L. Alvarez-Gaume and S. F. Hassan,
"Introduction to S-Duality in *N*=2 Supersymmetric Gauge Theories: A
Pedagogical Review of the Work of Seiberg and Witten,"
* Fortsch. Phys.* 45 (1997) 159,
hep-th/9701069.

5.
E. Witten,
"Dyons of Charge e theta/ 2 pi,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 86 (1979) 283.

6.
K. Intriligator and N. Seiberg,
"Phases of *N*=1 Supersymmetric Gauge Theories in Four-Dimensions,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 431 (1994) 551,
hep-th/9408155.

7.
C. Csaki and W. Skiba,
"Classification of the *N*=1 Seiberg--Witten Theories,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 58 (1998) 045008,
hep-th/9801173;

8.
H. W. Lenstra Jr.,
"Factoring Integers with Elliptic Curves,"
* Ann. Math.* 126 (1987) 649.

9.
V. Miller,
"Uses of Elliptic Curves in Cryptography," in * Lecture Notes in Computer Science 218: Advances in Cryptology---CRYPTO 85* (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986) p. 417;
N. Koblitz,
"Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems,"
* Math. Comput.* 48 (1987) 203.

10.
A. Wiles,
"Modular Elliptic-Curves and Fermat's Last Theorem,"
* Ann. Math.* 141 (1995) 443;
R. Taylor, and A. Wiles, "Ring-Theoretic Properties of Certain Hecke Algebras,"
* Ann. Math.* 141 (1995) 553.

11.
N. Seiberg,
"Supersymmetry and Nonperturbative beta Functions,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 206 (1988) 75.

12.
C. H. Clemens, *A Scrapbook of Complex Curve Theory,* (Plenum Press, New York, 1980).

13.
S. K. Donaldson, "An Application of Gauge Theory to the Topology of Four-Manifolds,"
* J. Differ. Geom.* 18 (1983) 269;
"The Orientation of Yang-Mills Moduli Spaces and Four-Manifold Topology."
* J. Differ. Geom.* 26 (1987) 397;
"Polynomial Invariants for Smooth Four-Manifolds."
* Topology* 29 (1990) 257;
S. K. Donaldson and P. B. Kronheimer,
* The Geometry of Four-Manifolds*, (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1990).

14.
E. Witten,
"Topological Quantum Field Theory,"
* Commun. Math. Phys.* 117 (1988) 353.

15.
E. Witten,
"Monopoles and Four Manifolds,"
* Math. Res. Lett.* 1 (1994) 769,
hep-th/9411102.

16.
E. Witten, "Supersymmetry and Morse Theory,"
* J. Diff. Geom.* 17 (1984) 661.

17
E. Witten, "Quantum Field Theory and the Jones Polynomial,"
* Comm. Math. Phys.* 121 (1989) 351.

18.
A. Hanany and Y. Oz,
"On the Quantum Moduli Space of Vacua of *N*=2 Supersymmetric SU(N_c) Gauge
Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 452 (1995) 283,
hep-th/9505075.

Chapter 14 Superconformal field theories

1.
K. Intriligator and B. Wecht,
"The Exact Superconformal R-symmetry Maximizes a,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 667 (2003) 183,
hep-th/0304128;
K. Intriligator and B. Wecht,
"RG Fixed Points and Flows in SQCD with Adjoints,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 677 (2004) 223,
hep-th/0309201.

2.
J. L. Cardy,
"Is there a C Theorem in Four-Dimensions?,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 215 (1988) 749.

3.
A. B. Zamolodchikov,
"Irreversibility' of the Flux of the Renormalization Group in a 2-D Field Theory,"
* JETP Lett.* 43 (1986) 730 [* Pisma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.* 43 (1986) 565].

4.
D. Anselmi, D. Z. Freedman, M. T. Grisaru, and A. A. Johansen,
"Nonperturbative Formulas for Central Functions of Supersymmetric
Gauge Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 526 (1998) 543,
hep-th/9708042;
D. Anselmi, J. Erlich, D. Z. Freedman, and A. A. Johansen,
"Positivity Constraints on Anomalies in Supersymmetric Gauge
Theories,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 57 (1998) 7570,
hep-th/9711035.

5.
H. Murayama,
"Studying Noncalculable Models of Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 355 (1995) 187,
hep-th/9505082.

6.
E. Poppitz and S. P. Trivedi,
"Some Examples of Chiral Moduli Spaces and Dynamical Supersymmetry
Breaking,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 365 (1996) 125,
hep-th/9507169.

7.
D. Kutasov, A. Parnachev, and D. A. Sahakyan,
"Central Charges and U(1)_R Symmetries in *N*=1 Super Yang--Mills,"
* JHEP* 0311 (2003) 013,
hep-th/0308071.

8.
C. Csaki, P. Meade, and J. Terning,
"A Mixed Phase of SUSY Gauge Theories from A-Maximization,"
* JHEP* 0404 (2004) 040,
hep-th/0403062.

9.
M. A. Luty, M. Schmaltz, and J. Terning,
"A Sequence of Duals for Sp(2N) Supersymmetric Gauge Theories with
Adjoint Matter,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 54 (1996) 7815,
hep-th/9603034.

10.
A. Hanany and Y. Oz,
"On the Quantum Moduli Space of Vacua of *N*=2 Supersymmetric SU(N_c) Gauge
Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 452 (1995) 283,
hep-th/9505075.

11.
P. C. Argyres and M. R. Douglas,
"New Phenomena in SU(3) Supersymmetric Gauge Theory,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 448 (1995) 93,
hep-th/9505062.

12.
P. C. Argyres, M. R. Plesser, N. Seiberg, and E. Witten,
"New *N*=2 Superconformal Field Theories in Four Dimensions,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 461 (1996) 71,
hep-th/9511154.

13.
T. Eguchi,
"Seiberg--Witten Theory and S-duality,"
in *Duality and Supersymmetric Theories*, Eds. Olive, D. I. and West, P. C. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997) p. 139.

14.
W. Lerche, C. Vafa, and N. P. Warner,
"Chiral Rings In *N*=2 Superconformal Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 324 (1989) 427;
E. J. Martinec,
"Algebraic Geometry and Effective Lagrangians,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 217 (1989) 431.

15.
R. G. Leigh and M. J. Strassler,
"Exactly Marginal Operators and Duality in Four-Dimensional *N*=1 Supersymmetric
Gauge Theory,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 447 (1995) 95,
hep-th/9503121.

16.
S. Kachru and E. Silverstein,
"4-D Conformal Theories and Strings on Orbifolds,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 80 (1998) 4855,
hep-th/9802183;
A. Lawrence, N. Nekrasov, and C. Vafa,
"On Conformal Field Theories in Four-Dimensions,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 533 (1998) 199,
hep-th/9803015;
M. Bershadsky, Z. Kakushadze, and C. Vafa,
"String Expansion as Large N Expansion of Gauge Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 523 (1998) 59,
hep-th/9803076;
M. Bershadsky and A. Johansen,
"Large N Limit of Orbifold Field Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 536 (1998) 141,
hep-th/9803249.

17.
H. Georgi,
"A Tool Kit for Builders of Composite Models,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 266 (1986) 274;
M. R. Douglas and G. W. Moore,
"D-Branes, Quivers, and ALE Instantons,"
hep-th/9603167.

18.
N. Arkani-Hamed, A. G. Cohen, and H. Georgi,
"(De)constructing Dimensions,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 86 (2001) 4757,
hep-th/0104005;
C. T. Hill, S. Pokorski, and J. Wang,
"Gauge Invariant Effective Lagrangian for Kaluza-Klein Modes,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 64 (2001) 105005,
hep-th/0104035;
I. Rothstein and W. Skiba,
"Mother Moose: Generating Extra Dimensions from Simple Groups at Large N,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 65 (2002) 065002,
hep-th/0109175;
N. Arkani-Hamed, A. G. Cohen, D. B. Kaplan, A. Karch, and L. Motl,
"Deconstructing (2,0) and Little String Theories,"
* JHEP* 0301 (2003) 083,
hep-th/0110146;
C. Csaki, J. Erlich, and J. Terning,
"Seiberg--Witten Description of the Deconstructed 6D (0,2) Theory,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 67 (2003) 025019,
hep-th/0208095.

19. P.H. Frampton and C. Vafa, "Conformal Approach to Particle Phenomenology," hep-th/9903226.

20.
C. Csaki, W. Skiba, and J. Terning,
"beta Functions of Orbifold Theories and the Hierarchy Problem,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 61 (2000) 025019,
hep-th/9906057.

21.
M. J. Strassler,
"Non-Supersymmetric Theories with Light Scalar Fields and Large
Hierarchies,"
hep-th/0309122;
H. S. Goh, M. A. Luty, and S. P. Ng,
"Supersymmetry without Supersymmetry,"
* JHEP* 0501 (2005) 040,
hep-th/0309103;
M. A. Luty and T. Okui,
"Conformal Technicolor,"
hep-ph/0409274.

Chapter 15 Supergravity

1.
J. Wess and J. Bagger, *Supersymmetry and Supergravity*, 2nd edn (Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 1992).

2.
P. Van Nieuwenhuizen,
"Supergravity," Section 4.5,
* Phys. Rept.* 68 (1981) 189.

3.
A H. Chamseddine and P. C. West,
"Supergravity as a Gauge Theory of Supersymmetry,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 129 (1977) 39.

4.
P. C. West,
"Supergravity, Brane Dynamics and String Duality"
in *Duality and Supersymmetric Theories*, Eds. Olive, D. I. and West, P. C. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997).

5.
S. Weinberg,
*Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity,*
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1972) p. 365.

6.
D. Z. Freedman, P. van Nieuwenhuizen, and S. Ferrara,
"Progress Toward a Theory of Supergravity,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 13 (1976) 3214
D. Z. Freedman and P. van Nieuwenhuizen,
"Properties of Supergravity Theory,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 14 (1976) 912.

7.
M. Kaku and P. K. Townsend,
"Poincare Supergravity as Broken Superconformal Gravity,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 76 (1978) 54;
A. Das, M. Kaku, and P. K. Townsend,
"A Unified Approach to Matter Coupling in Weyl and Einstein Supergravity,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 40 (1978) 1215;
P. S. Howe,
"Supergravity in Superspace,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 199 (1982) 309;
E. S. Fradkin and A. A. Tseytlin,
"Conformal Supergravity,"
* Phys. Rept.* 119 (1985) 233.

8.
C. Brans and H. Dicke,
"Mach's Principle and a Relativistic Theory of Gravitation,"
* Phys. Rev.* 124 (1961) 925.

9.
W. Siegel and S. J. Gates, Jr.,
"Superfield Supergravity,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 147 (1979) 77;
S. J. Gates, M. T. Grisaru, M. Rocek, and W. Siegel,
*One Thousand and One Lessons in Supersymmetry*, (Benjamin/Cummings, Reading MA, 1983)
hep-th/0108200;
V. Kaplunovsky and J. Louis,
"Field Dependent Gauge Couplings in Locally Supersymmetric Effective Quantum
Field Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 422 (1994) 57,
hep-th/9402005.

10.
E. Cremmer, S. Ferrara, L. Girardello, and A. Van Proeyen,
"Yang-Mills Theories with Local Supersymmetry: Lagrangian, Transformation Laws and Superhiggs Effect,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 212 (1983) 413.

11.
L. Randall and R. Sundrum,
"Out of this World Supersymmetry Breaking,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 557 (1999) 79,
hep-th/9810155.

12.
S. P. Martin, "A Supersymmetry Primer,"
in * Perspectives on Supersymmetry*, Ed. Kane, G., pp. 1--98. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1998),
hep-ph/9709356.

13.
A. Brignole, L. E. Ibanez, and C. Munoz,
"Towards a Theory of Soft Terms for the Supersymmetric Standard Model,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 422 (1994) 125
[Erratum-ibid. * B* 436 (1995) 747]
hep-ph/9308271;
K. Choi, J. E. Kim, and H. P. Nilles,
"Cosmological Constant and Soft Terms in Supergravity,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 73 (1994) 1758,
hep-ph/9404311;
K. Choi, J. E. Kim and G. T. Park,
"Phenomenology of Soft Terms in the Presence of Nonvanishing Hidden Sector
Potential Energy,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 442 (1995) 3,
hep-ph/9412397.

14.
D. V. Volkov and V. A. Soroka,
"Higgs Effect for Goldstone Particles with Spin 1/2,"
* JETP Lett.* 18 (1973) 312
[* Pisma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.* 1 (1973) 529];
S. Deser and B. Zumino,
"Broken Supersymmetry and Supergravity,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 38 (1977) 1433;
E. Cremmer, B. Julia, J. Scherk, P. van Nieuwenhuizen, S. Ferrara, and L. Girardello,
"Superhiggs Effect in Supergravity with General Scalar Interactions,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 79 (1978) 231.

15.
P. K. Townsend,
"The Eleven-Dimensional Supermembrane Revisited,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 350 (1995) 184,
hep-th/9501068;
"D-branes from M-branes,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 373 (1996) 68,
hep-th/9512062;
E. Witten,
"String Theory Dynamics in Various Dimensions,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 443 (1995) 85,
hep-th/9503124;

16.
M. B. Green and J. H. Schwarz,
"Anomaly Cancellation in Supersymmetric D=10 Gauge Theory and Superstring
Theory,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 149 (1984) 117.

17.
M. Pernici, K. Pilch, and P. van Nieuwenhuizen,
"Gauged *N*=8, D=5 Supergravity,
* Nucl. Phys. B* 259 (1985) 460;
M. Gunaydin, L. J. Romans, and N. P. Warner,
"Compact and Noncompact Gauged Supergravity Theories in Five Dimensions,
* Nucl. Phys. B* 272 (1986) 598.

Chapter 16 Anomaly and gaugino mediation

1.
L. Randall and R. Sundrum,
"Out of this World Supersymmetry Breaking,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 557 (1999) 79,
hep-th/9810155.

2.
G. F. Giudice, M. A. Luty, H. Murayama, and R. Rattazzi,
"Gaugino Mass Without Singlets,"
* JHEP* 12 (1998) 027,
hep-ph/9810442.

3.
E. Cremmer, S. Ferrara, C. Kounnas, and D. V. Nanopoulos,
"Naturally Vanishing Cosmological Constant in *N*=1 Supergravity,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 133 (1983) 61;
J. R. Ellis, A. B. Lahanas, D. V. Nanopoulos, and K. Tamvakis,
"No-Scale Supersymmetric Standard Model,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 134 (1984) 429;
J. R. Ellis, C. Kounnas, and D. V. Nanopoulos,
"Phenomenological SU(1,1) Supergravity,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 241 (1984) 406.

4. Yuri Shirman, private communication.

5.
Z. Chacko, M. A. Luty, I. Maksymyk, and E. Ponton,
"Realistic Anomaly-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking,"
* JHEP* 0004 (2000) 001,
hep-ph/9905390.

6.
Z. Chacko and M. A. Luty,
"Realistic Anomaly Mediation with Bulk Gauge Fields,"
* JHEP* 0205 (2002) 047,
hep-ph/0112172.

7.
A. Pomarol and R. Rattazzi,
"Sparticle Masses from the Superconformal Anomaly,"
* JHEP* 05 (1999) 013,
hep-ph/9903448.

8.
S. R. Coleman and E. Weinberg,
"Radiative Corrections as the Origin of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 7 (1973) 1888.

9.
D. E. Kaplan, G. D. Kribs, and M. Schmaltz,
"Supersymmetry Breaking Through Transparent Extra Dimensions,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 62 (2000) 035010,
hep-ph/9911293;
Z. Chacko, M.A. Luty, A. E. Nelson, and E. Ponton,
"Gaugino-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking,"
* JHEP* 0001 (2000) 003,
hep-ph/9911323.

10.
N. Arkani-Hamed, T. Gregoire, and J. Wacker,
"Higher Dimensional Super-symmetry in 4D Superspace,"
* JHEP* 0203 (2002) 055,
hep-th/0101233.

Chapter 17 Introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence

1.
J. M. Maldacena,
"The Large-N Limit of Superconformal Field Theories and Supergravity,"
* Adv. Theor. Math. Phys.* 2 (1998) 231,
hep-th/9711200.

2.
S .S. Gubser, I. R. Klebanov, and A. M. Polyakov,
"Gauge Theory Correlators from Non-Critical String Theory,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 428 (1998) 105,
hep-th/9802109.

3.
J. Polchinski *String Theory*
(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998);
C. V. Johnson, *D-Branes* (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003);
B. Zweibach, * A First Course in String Theory*. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004).

4.
O. Aharony, S.S. Gubser, J. Maldacena, H. Ooguri, and Y. Oz,
"Large N Field Theories, String Theory and Gravity,"
* Phys. Rept.* 323 (2000) 183,
hep-th/9905111.

5.
A. Giveon and D. Kutasov,
"Brane Dynamics and Gauge Theory,"
* Rev. Mod. Phys.* 71 (1999) 983,
hep-th/9802067.

6.
J. Dai, R. G. Leigh, and J. Polchinski,
"New Connections Between String Theories,"
* Mod. Phys. Lett. A* 4 (1989) 2073.
J. Polchinski,
"Dirichlet-Branes and Ramond--Ramond Charges,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 75 (1995) 4724,
hep-th/9510017.

7.
A. Font, L. E. Ibanez, D. Lust, and F. Quevedo,
"Strong--Weak Coupling Duality and Nonperturbative Effects in String
Theory,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 249 (1990) 35.
A. Sen,
"Strong--weak Coupling Duality in Four-Dimensional String Theory,"
* Int. J. Mod. Phys. A* 9 (1994) 3707,
hep-th/9402002;
J. H. Schwarz,
"Evidence for Nonperturbative String Symmetries,"
* Lett. Math. Phys.* 34 (1995) 309,
hep-th/9411178;
C. M. Hull and P. K. Townsend,
"Unity of Superstring Dualities,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 438 (1995) 109,
hep-th/9410167.
E. Witten,
"String Theory Dynamics in Various Dimensions,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 443 (1995) 85,
hep-th/9503124;
S. Kachru and C. Vafa,
"Exact Results for *N*=2 Compactifications of Heterotic Strings,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 450 (1995) 69,
hep-th/9505105.

8.
E. Witten,
"Bound States of Strings and p-Branes,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 460 (1996) 335,
hep-th/9510135.

9.
A. Hanany and E. Witten,
"Type IIB Superstrings, BPS Monopoles, and Three-Dimensional Gauge
Dynamics,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 492 (1997) 152,
hep-th/9611230;
S. Elitzur, A. Giveon, and D. Kutasov,
"Branes and *N*=1 Duality in String Theory,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 400 (1997) 269,
hep-th/9702014.

10.
A. Klemm, W. Lerche, P. Mayr, C. Vafa, and N. P. Warner,
"Self-Dual Strings and *N*=2 Supersymmetric Field Theory,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 477 (1996) 746,
hep-th/9604034;
E. Witten,
"Solutions of Four-Dimensional Field Theories via M-Theory,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 500 (1997) 3,
hep-th/9703166.

11.
A. Klemm, W. Lerche, S. Yankielowicz, and S. Theisen,
"Simple Singularities and *N*=2 Supersymmetric Yang--Mills Theory,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 344 (1995) 169,
hep-th/9411048.

12.
J. Furukawa,
"S-duality in *N*=2 QCD and Non-Abelian Duality in *N*=1 QCD with
M-Theory,"
hep-th/9706121;
M. Schmaltz and R. Sundrum,
"*N*=1 Field Theory Duality from M-Theory,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 57 (1998) 6455,
hep-th/9708015;
C. Csaki and W. Skiba,
"Duality in Sp and SO Gauge Groups from M-Theory,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 415 (1997) 31,
hep-th/9708082.

13.
H. J. Kim, L. J. Romans, and P. Van Nieuwenhuizen, "Mass Spectrum
of Chiral Ten-Dimensional
*N*=2 Supergravity on S^5,"
* Phys.Rev. D* 32 (1985) 389;
M. Gunaydin and N. Marcus, "The Spectrum of the S^5
Compactification
of Chiral *N*=2, D=10 Supergravity and the Unitary Supermultiplets of
U(2,2/4),"
* Class.Quant.Grav.* 2 (1985) L11.

14.
E. Witten,
"Anti-de Sitter Space and Holography,"
* Adv. Theor. Math. Phys.* 2 (1998) 253,
hep-th/9802150.

15.
P. Breitenlohner and D. Z. Freedman,
"Positive Energy in Anti-de Sitter Backgrounds and Gauged Extended
Supergravity,"
* Phys. Lett. B* 115 (1982) 197;
"Stability in Gauged Extended Supergravity,"
* Ann. Phys.* 144 (1982) 249.

16.
S. J. Rey and J. T. Yee,
"Macroscopic Strings as Heavy Quarks in Large N Gauge Theory and Anti-de
Sitter Supergravity,"
* Eur. Phys. J. C* 22 (2001) 379,
hep-th/9803001.

17.
A. Zee, *Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell*, (Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 2003).

18.
S. W. Hawking and D. N. Page,
"Thermodynamics of Black Holes in Anti-de Sitter Space,"
* Commun. Math. Phys.* 87 (1983) 577.

19.
E. Witten,
"Anti-de Sitter Space, Thermal PhaseTransition, and Confinement in Gauge Theories,"
* Adv. Theor. Math. Phys.* 2 (1998) 505,
hep-th/9803131.

20.
C. Csaki, H. Ooguri, Y. Oz, and J. Terning,
"Glueball Mass Spectrum from Supergravity,"
* JHEP* 01 (1999) 017,
hep-th/9806021.

21.
J. G. Russo,
"New Compactifications of Supergravities and Large N QCD,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 543 (1999) 183,
hep-th/9808117.

22.
C. Csaki, Y. Oz, J. Russo, and J. Terning,
"Large N QCD from Rotating Branes,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 59 (1999) 065012,
hep-th/9810186.

23.
C. Csaki, J. Russo, K. Sfetsos, and J. Terning,
"Supergravity Models for 3+1 Dimensional QCD,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 60 (1999) 044001,
hep-th/9902067.

24.
R. C. Brower, S. D. Mathur, and C. I. Tan,
"Discrete Spectrum of the Graviton in the AdS_5 Black Hole Background,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 574 (2000) 219,
hep-th/9908196.

25.
M. J. Teper,
"Physics from the Lattice: Glueballs in QCD, Topology, SU(N) for all N,"
hep-lat/9711011;
C. J. Morningstar and M. J. Peardon,
"The Glueball Spectrum from an Anisotropic Lattice Study,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 60 (1999) 034509,
hep-lat/9901004.

26.
J. G. Russo and K. Sfetsos,
"Rotating D3 Branes and QCD in Three Dimensions,"
* Adv. Theor. Math. Phys.* 3 (1999) 131,
hep-th/9901056.

27.
M. Cvetic and S. Gubser,
"Thermodynamic Stability and Phases of General Spinning Branes,"
* JHEP* 9907 (1999) 010,
hep-th/9903132.

28.
J. B. Kogut, D. K. Sinclair, and L. Susskind,
"A Quantitative Approach to Low-Energy Quantum Chromodynamics,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 114 (1976) 199.

29.
Y. Oz and J. Terning,
"Orbifolds of AdS_5 x S^5 and 4D Conformal Feld Theories,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 532 (1998) 163,
hep-th/9803167.

30.
S. Kachru and E. Silverstein,
"4D Conformal Theories and Strings on Orbifolds,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 80 (1998) 4855,
hep-th/9802183;
A. Lawrence, N. Nekrasov, and C. Vafa,
"On Conformal Field Theories in Four-Dimensions,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 533 (1998) 199,
hep-th/9803015;

31.
M. R. Douglas and G. Moore,
"D-branes, Quivers, and ALE Instantons,"
hep-th/9603167;
C. V. Johnson and R. C. Myers,
"Aspects of Type IIB Theory on ALE Spaces,"
* Phys. Rev. D* 55 (1997) 6382,
hep-th/9610140.
M. R. Douglas, B. R. Greene, and D. R. Morrison,
"Orbifold Resolution by D-Branes,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 506 (1997) 84,
hep-th/9704151.

32.
J. M. Maldacena and C. Nunez,
"Towards the Large N Limit of Pure *N*=1 Super Yang--Mills,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 86 (2001) 588,
hep-th/0008001.

33. J. Polchinski and M. J. Strassler, "The String Dual of a Confining Four-Dimensional Gauge Theory," hep-th/0003136.

34.
I. R. Klebanov and M. J. Strassler,
"Supergravity and a Confining Gauge Theory: Duality Cascades and
chi SB-Resolution of Naked Singularities,"
* JHEP* 0008 (2000) 052,
hep-th/0007191;
M. J. Strassler,
"The Duality Cascade,"
hep-th/0505153.

35.
J. Erlich, E. Katz, D. T. Son, and M. A. Stephanov,
"QCD and a Holographic Model of Hadrons,"
hep-ph/0501128;
L. Da Rold and A. Pomarol,
"Chiral Symmetry Breaking from Five Dimensional Spaces,"
* Nucl. Phys. B* 721 (2005) 79,
hep-ph/0501218.

36.
D. Berenstein, J. M. Maldacena, and H. Nastase,
"Strings in Flat Space and pp Waves from *N*=4 Super Yang--Mills,"
* JHEP* 0204 (2002) 013,
hep-th/0202021.

37.
L. Randall and R. Sundrum,
"A Large Mass Hierarchy from a Small Extra Dimension,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 83 (1999) 3370,
hep-ph/9905221;
L. Randall and R. Sundrum,
"An Alternative to Compactification,"
* Phys. Rev. Lett.* 83 (1999) 4690,
hep-th/9906064.

Appendix B Group theory

1.
R. Slansky, "Group Theory for Unified Model Building,"
Phys. Rep. ** 79** (1981) 1.